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Friday, December 31, 2010

Happy new year 2011 !!!

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Production Methods !!

Definition
In our introduction to production and operations management ("POM") we suggested that there are several different methods of handling the conversion or production process - Job, Batch, Flow and Group. This revision note explains these methods in more detail.
Introduction
The various methods of production are not associated with a particular volume of production. Similarly, several methods may be used at different stages of the overall production process.
Job Method
With Job production, the complete task is handled by a single worker or group of workers. Jobs can be small-scale/low technology as well as complex/high technology.
Low technology jobs: here the organisation of production is extremely simply, with the required skills and equipment easily obtainable. This method enables customer's specific requirements to be included, often as the job progresses. Examples include: hairdressers; tailoring
High technology jobs: high technology jobs involve much greater complexity - and therefore present greater management challenge. The important ingredient in high-technology job production isproject management, or project control. The essential features of good project control for a job are:
- Clear definitions of objectives - how should the job progress (milestones, dates, stages)
- Decision-making process - how are decisions taking about the needs of each process in the job, labour and other resources
Examples of high technology / complex jobs: film production; large construction projects (e.g. the Millennium Dome)
Batch Method
As businesses grow and production volumes increase, it is not unusual to see the production process organised so that "Batch methods" can be used.
Batch methods require that the work for any task is divided into parts or operations. Each operation is completed through the whole batch before the next operation is performed. By using the batch method, it is possible to achieve specialisation of labour. Capital expenditure can also be kept lower although careful planning is required to ensure that production equipment is not idle. The main aims of the batch method are, therefore, to:
- Concentrate skills (specialisation)
- Achieve high equipment utilisation
This technique is probably the most commonly used method for organising manufacture. A good example is the production of electronic instruments.
Batch methods are not without their problems. There is a high probability of poor work flow, particularly if the batches are not of the optimal size or if there is a significant difference in productivity by each operation in the process. Batch methods often result in the build up of significant "work in progress" or stocks (i.e. completed batches waiting for their turn to be worked on in the next operation).
Flow Methods
Flow methods are similar to batch methods - except that the problem of rest/idle production/batch queuing is eliminated.
Flow has been defined as a "method of production organisation where the task is worked on continuously or where the processing of material is continuous and progressive,"
The aims of flow methods are:
- Improved work & material flow
- Reduced need for labour skills
- Added value / completed work faster
Flow methods mean that as work on a task at a particular stage is complete, it must be passed directly to the next stage for processing without waiting for the remaining tasks in the "batch". When it arrives at the next stage, work must start immediately on the next process. In order for the flow to be smooth, the times that each task requires on each stage must be of equal length and there should be no movement off the flow production line. In theory, therefore, any fault or error at a particular stage
In order that flow methods can work well, several requirements must be met:
(1) There must be substantially constant demand
If demand is unpredictable or irregular, then the flow production line can lead to a substantial build up of stocks and possibility storage difficulties. Many businesses using flow methods get round this problem by "building for stock" - i.e. keeping the flow line working during quiet periods of demand so that output can be produced efficiently.
(2) The product and/or production tasks must be standardised
Flow methods are inflexible - they cannot deal effectively with variations in the product (although some "variety" can be accomplished through applying different finishes, decorations etc at the end of the production line).
(3) Materials used in production must be to specification and delivered on time
Since the flow production line is working continuously, it is not a good idea to use materials that vary in style, form or quality. Similarly, if the required materials are not available, then the whole production line will come to a close - with potentially serious cost consequences.
(4) Each operation in the production flow must be carefully defined - and recorded in detail
(5) The output from each stage of the flow must conform to quality standards
Since the output from each stage moves forward continuously, there is no room for sub-standard output to be "re-worked" (compare this with job or batch production where it is possible to compensate for a lack of quality by doing some extra work on the job or the batch before it is completed).
The achievement of a successful production flow line requires considerable planning, particularly in ensuring that the correct production materials are delivered on time and that operations in the flow are of equal duration.
Common examples where flow methods are used are the manufacture of motor cars, chocolates and televisions.

Sunday, November 21, 2010

List of Certification Bodies -QMS

Quality Management Systems
Accreditation No.Name of the Certification BodiesValid FromValid Upto
QM001Det Norske Veritas21 Jun 200120 Jun 2012
QM002Tuv India Pvt. Ltd.12 Sep 200211 Sep 2013
QM003Bureau Veritas Certification (India) Pvt. Ltd.14 Apr 200313 Apr 2014
QM004Integrated Quality Certification Pvt. Ltd.11 Sep 200310 Sep 2012
QM005AGSI Certification Pvt. Ltd.12 Apr 200411 Apr 2014
QM006Indian Register Quality Systems (IRQS), Dept. of Indian Register of Shipping19 Apr 200418 Apr 2011
QM007ICRS Management Systems Pvt. Ltd.11 Aug 200410 Aug 2014
QM008BSI India Pvt. Ltd.12 Aug 200411 Aug 2011
QM009International Certifications Services Private Ltd.16 Aug 200415 Aug 2011
QM010TUV Rheinland (India) Pvt. Ltd.16 Aug 200415 Aug 2011
QM011TUV SUD South Asia Pvt. Ltd.29 Nov 200428 Nov 2011
QM012NVT Quality Certification Pvt. Ltd.09 Mar 200508 Mar 2012
QM014American Quality Assessors (India) Pvt. Ltd.18 Nov 200517 Nov 2012
QM016URS Certification Ltd.02 Feb 200601 Feb 2013
QM017Moody International Certification India Ltd.02 Feb 200601 Feb 2012
QM018Transpacific Certifications Ltd.18 May 200617 May 2012
QM020QMS Certification Services Pvt. Ltd.27 May 200626 May 2013
QM021Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance Ltd. (India Branch)12 Jun 200611 Jun 2013
QM022Vexil Business Process Services Pvt. Ltd.21 Jun 200620 Jun 2012
QM023NQA Certification Pvt. Ltd.Withdrawn
QM024QSS, Quality Management Services Withdrawn
QM025QSI (India) Certifications Pvt. Ltd.10 Oct 200609 Oct 2012
QM026RINA India Pvt. Ltd.12 Oct 200611 Oct 2012
QM027SGS India Pvt. Ltd.16 Oct 200615 Oct 2012
QM028Global Certification Services27 Oct 200626 Oct 2012
QM029NQAQSR Certification Pvt. Ltd.20 Dec 200619 Dec 2013
QM030BSCIC Certifications Pvt. Ltd.15 Mar 200714 Mar 2014
QM031SWISS CERT Pvt. Ltd. (Formerly Swiso India Pvt Ltd)19 Mar 200718 Mar 2014
QM032KBS Certification Services Pvt. Ltd.17 Apr 200716 Apr 2014
QM033Intertek India Pvt. Ltd.18 Apr 200717 Apr 2014
QM034STQC Certification Services18 Apr 200717 Apr 2014
QM035ISOQAR (India) Pvt. Ltd.29 Aug 200828 Aug 2011
QM036GCAS Quality Certifications Pvt. Ltd.11 Sep 200810 Sep 2011
QM037Vincotte International India Assessment Services Pvt. Ltd.12 Dec 200811 Dec 2011
QM038Phoenix Progressive Certifications Enterprise Pvt. Ltd.20 Apr 200919 Apr 2012
QM039Tata Projects Ltd.24 Apr 200923 Apr 2012
QM041ICMQ Certification India Pvt. Ltd.  18 Jan 201017 Jan 2013

For further details of registration and validity please visit : 
http://www.qcin.org/nabcb/accreditation/reg_bod_qms.php